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解字篇

2010-7-18 00:59| 發佈者: highyun| 查看: 23829| 評論: 4807|原作者: 粵語協會|來自: 本站原創

开篇导言:粤语用字主要包括两类,第一类的字只在粤语中出现,如“嘅”、“唔”;第二类的字在共同语中也存在,但在粤语中有独特意思,如“点”、“边”。本篇挑选一些有代表性的常用粤语字讲解。

(一)嗌
说明:“嗌”([aai3],近读“哎”)有“大声叫”以及由此而引申的“吵架”意思。
够钟起身喇,嗌醒佢。——够钟起来了,叫醒他。
禽晚半夜听到楼下有人嗌捉贼。——昨晚半夜听到楼下有人喊捉贼。
今日做咩黑口黑面嘅?同女朋友嗌交啊?——今天你怎么板着脸?跟女朋友吵架吗?
解释:第一、二句中的“嗌”都指“大声地叫”,第三句则指“吵架”,“嗌”表示类似意思的还有“嗌霎(斗气对骂)”、“相嗌唔好口(吵架对双方都无益)”。

(二)翳
说明:“翳”([ai3],同“缢”音),有“闷,不舒服”的意思。
呢两日又冇风又潮湿,好翳焗。——这两天又没有风,又潮湿,很闷热。
甲:听到华叔生病嘅消息,我个心就翳住翳住。——听到华叔生病的消息,我的心就闷闷不乐。
乙:唔使闭翳,华叔会好返嘅。——不用担心,华叔会康复的。
解释:“翳”本字为“厂貝貝貝”,现已俗写作“翳”。留意上面三句中“翳”意思的变化,由“心里闷”逐渐引申出“忧愁”的意思,例如“闭翳”。另外,“个心翳住”就是内心不舒服,像被石头压着。

(三)爱
说明:“爱”除了“喜欢”,在粤语中还有“要”的意思。
呢件衫过晒时,你重爱唔爱?——这件衣服过时了,你还要不要?
甲:呢只雪糕有朱古力味同士多啤梨味,你爱边种?——这款雪糕有巧克力味和草莓味,你要那种?
乙:我要(食)朱古力味。/我爱朱古力味。——我要巧克力味的。
解释:“爱”与“要”有微小分别,前者只能跟名词,而后者可跟名词又可接动词,试比较“要(食)饭定要(食)面”与“爱饭定爱面”。

(四)着(上)
说明:粤语中“着”不用作助词而常用作动词,以下介绍两个用法。
黑鼆鼆,睇唔清,着灯啦。——一片漆黑的,看不清,开灯吧。

甲:系我唔着。——是我的错。
乙:今次边个唔着都好,下次吸取教训就得喇。 ——这次谁不对也好,下次吸取教训就行了。
解释:当表示开电器时,粤语用“着”,此用法已在《近义词篇》介绍过。“着”的另一意思是“对,正确”,此时,它通常搭配否定词“唔”,表示“做得不对”。

(五)着(下)
说明:“着”作动词时,在粤语中还有另一个独特用法。
事成之后,赚到嘅钱你着一半。——事成之后,所赚的钱你占一半。
旧时,呢度着咗九成系本地人;而家,呢度着咗七成系外地人。——以前,这里有九成是本地人;现在,这里有七成是外地人。
解释:“着”表示“占”的意思时,后面常跟一个比例数,例如“一半”、“三成”等,也有例外情况,如“着数(占了便宜)”。这两篇介绍“着”的义项,都读阳去声[zoek6],注意与“着衫(穿衣服)”的“着(阴去声[zoek3])”的分别。

(六)噏
说明:“噏”就是“随便地说”,发音近似英文up,因此不会写“噏”的人常用“up”来代替。
甲:辉少,听讲你喺逼细花城买咗间豪宅喎。——辉少,听说你在逼细花城买了一套豪宅。
乙:你唔好噏得就噏,我而家重喺拆迁区住紧——你不要胡说八道,我现在还住在拆迁区。

对面个阿伯一路睇报纸一路口噏噏。——对面的老伯一边看报纸一边自言自语。
解释:与“讲”、“话”相比,“噏”的内容通常很随意而不可信,一般不用于形容正规的说话,因此有“乱噏”、“发噏疯(乱说一通)”、“噏三噏四(说三道四)”等词语。

(七)抵
说明:“抵”在粤语中有“值得”和“应份、活该”的意思。
喺省城,呢种生果要卖几十文,呢度几文就买到,抵到烂啦。——在省城,这种水果要卖几十元,这里几块钱就买到,划算到极了。
个贼抢完嘢之后畀车撞断脚。——那贼抢完东西后被车撞断了腿。
抵!——活该!
解释:第二个意思也是由“值得”引申而来的,“活该”实际上就是“他有这样的下场是值得的。”又如这句“佢付出咁多,抵佢成功(他值得享有成功/他成功是应份的)”。

(八)喊
解释:在粤语中,“喊”一般不解作“大叫”(“大叫”用“嗌”字),而是“哭”的意思。
个BB喊足一晚,我一分钟都瞓唔到。——那婴儿哭了一整晚,我一分钟也不能睡。
上司闹两句啫,使唔使喊啊?喊都冇用口架!——上司责骂两句而已,不用哭吧?哭也没用啊。
解释:“喊”类似英文的cry,既表示“大叫”,也表示“哭”,还可搭配出“喊包(爱哭的人)”、“喊口(哭着脸)”等词。另外,“足”用在动词后形容动作做得足够多,如“做足一日”、“跑足十公里”。


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