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問句篇

2010-7-18 01:08| 發佈者: highyun| 查看: 44081| 評論: 7099|原作者: 粵語協會|來自: 本站原創

开篇导言:工作、交际或求助等场合,都要用到问句。以往篇章出现过不少问句,但都没有详细说明,本篇将系统地介绍粤语中各种类型的问句以及常用疑问词。

(一)普通问句(上)
说明:普通问句在一般陈述句后面加个疑问语气词,提问目的是向对方求证一个事实。
甲:你唔开心啊?——你不开心吗?
乙:系。——是的。

丙:BB咁快瞓咗喇?——小宝贝这么快睡了?
丁:唔系。——不是。
解释:提问者通常只希望对问句求取一个肯定或否定的回答,当然回答不一定是“系”或“唔系”,可以根据提问内容作出相关答复,例如第一句可以答“唔开心”,第二句可以答“未(瞓)”。

(二)普通问句(下)
说明:有一种普通问句带有反诘(反问)语气。
甲:佢识踢波(嘅)咩?——他会踢球的吗?
乙:系啊/识啊。——是啊/会呀。

丙:(乜)你唔系发咗达咩?——怎么你不是发了财吗?
丁:梗唔系。——当然不是。
解释:这种类型的问句一般在句末加语气词“咩”,实际往往表达相反的意思。此外,问句前也可以加上“乜”,以增强反诘的效果。

(三)正反问句(上)
说明:正反问句从一件事的正反两面提问,通常用“×唔×”的形式。
甲:今晚去唔去消夜?——今晚去不去吃宵夜?
乙:去。——去。

丙:阿Sa系唔系阿基老婆?——阿Sa是不是阿基老婆?
丁:唔系,佢哋离咗婚。——不是,他们离婚了。
解释:正反问句常用的提问词有“使唔使”、“得唔得”、“好唔好”等,其中“系唔系”还可简写作“系咪”(“唔系”连读成“咪”)。回答形式与普通问句类似,但有时还会在肯定或否定回答后面附加说明情况。

(四)正反问句(下)
说明:对多于一个字的词也可以用正反问句提问。
甲:你等阵经唔经过阿强屋企?——等一回你会经过阿强家吗?
乙:经,咩事?——经过,什么事?

丙:你介唔介意帮我畀返张CD佢?——你是否介意代我还这张唱片给他?
丁:唔介意。——不介意。
解释:这类问句的回答方式可分两类:“经过”、“好睇”等可以单字回答,如第一句;“介意”、“钟意”等则必须以完整词回答,如第二句。不过,稳妥起见,建议所有情况都以完整形式回答。

(五)选择问句
说明:要对方在两项或多项中作出一个选择,可用“定系”或“抑或”引出提问。
甲:掟银仔决定啦,你拣公定(系)字?——掷硬币决定吧,你选公还是字?
乙:是但啦。——随便吧。

丙:你钟意用google,baidu,抑或bing?——你喜欢用google,baidu,还是bing?
丁:梗系google!——当然是google!
解释:“抑或”与“定系”意思基本相同,但“定系”的“系”可省略,如“坚定流?(真的还是假的?)”。“是但”与“求其”都表示“随便,没所谓”的意思。

(六)什么
说明:要针对“什么”提问,粤语可用“咩”、“乜”引出问句。
黑色嗰啲系咩/乜嘢嚟口架?——黑色那些是什么来的?
呢个国家,乜嘢系可以放心食落肚嘅?——这个国家,什么是可以放心吃进肚里的?

甲:咩事?——什么事?
乙:冇事。——没事。
解释:作疑问词时,“咩”其实是由“乜嘢”的连读演化而来,所以意思是完全相同的,只是作为宾语时,“乜嘢”的“嘢”可以省略,例如“做紧乜?”、“你讲乜?” 。

(七)哪里
说明:要针对所处方位地点提问,粤语用“边度”或“边处[syu3]”充当“哪里”的作用。
甲:乔宝宝系边度人?——乔宝宝是哪里人?
乙:印度人。——印度人。

边处有加油站?部车冇油喇!——哪里有加油站,车没油了。
你喺边做嘢口架?——你在哪儿工作?
解释:“边度”和“边处”意思相同,只是后者更旧式,若“边”在句首或分句的句首,“度”或“处”不能省略。有时也可以用“咩地方”充当“边度”的作用,如“你而家喺咩地方?” 。

(八)哪个、谁
说明:“边”除了与“度”组合引出“where”的意思,还可以与量词组合引出“which”或“who”的意思。
甲:边个抢咗佢支录音笔?——谁抢了她的录音笔?
乙:忠哥啰。——忠哥呗。

丙:国内上唔到边啲网站?——国内上不了哪些网站?
丁:多到数唔晒。——多得数不完。
解释:“边”后可接单复数量词,表示“哪个(谁)”、“哪位(谁)”、“哪只”、“哪些”等。注意,这种“边”后接量词的形式在陈述句中用作总括的范围副词,例如“边度都有阳光(到处都有阳光)”(见以前的《范围篇》)。

(九)如何
说明:要针对“如何”或“怎样”提问,通常用“点”或“点样”。
甲:你想点?——你想怎样?
乙:想你赔钱。——想你赔钱。

丙:点样先可以注册facebook啊?——如何才可以注册facebook?
丁:用代理啦。——用代理吧。
解释:“点”相当于“怎”,例如“点办”、“点样”,其中“点样”的“样”常可省略。“点”有时表示“无论如何”的意思,例如“你今晚点都要嚟”,此时不作提问词用。

(十)为什么
说明:要表示“为什么”的意思,粤语常用“点解”、“何解”等词。
甲:点解日日都咁大雾?——为什么天天都这么大雾?
乙:因为污染好严重。——因为污染很严重。

丙:何解你今日行路返工嘅?——为何你今天走路上班?
丁:事关我部车畀人偷咗。——因为我的车被偷了。
解释:除了“点解”、“何解”,还有“为乜”、“何故”、“ 做乜”、“ 因乜解究”等多个词都有相同用法,至于回答,则有“皆因”、“事关”等词可充当“因为”的功能。

(十一)几时
说明:对于时间的提问,通常用“几时”、“咩时候”等。
世界杯几时开始?——世界杯何时开始?
咩时候睇戏有半价优惠?——什么时候看电影有半价优惠?

甲:你唔好成日打机啦。——你别总是打游戏机。
乙:几时有啊!——哪里有!
解释:询问某个具体时间还可以用“几号”、“几点”等。“几时”有时可以表示否定意思,如上面的一组对话。此外“几时”也可以表示常规性事件,如“我几时都咁关心你”,此时作副词而不作疑问词。

(十二)多少
说明:“几”用途广泛,除了可引出时间提问,还可引出与数量有关的提问。
二嘅开方系几多?——二的开放是多少?
一升汽油几钱?——一升油多少钱?

甲:佢老婆有几靓?——他老婆有多漂亮?
乙:好靚!——很漂亮!
解释:除了可以提问具体的数量,如“几(多)”、“几(多)钱”、“几(多)米”等,“几”还可以引出与程度相关的提问,例如“几好”、“几靚”、“几热”等。

(十三)反问
说明:反问的形式是问,但实际不需回答,答案已藏于句中,常见的引导词有“唔通”。
唔通见到你有事我都唔理?——难道看见你有事我也不理?
我点会有钱买屋?——我怎会有钱买房?
边有人咁冇血性口架!——哪有人这么没血性的!
解释:一些疑问词,例如“点”、“边”、“乜”等也可以引出反问句,而且可以表达相同意思,例如第一句可改成“见到你有事,我点会唔理?”。另外,由于反诘语气强烈,有时不须带问号。


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